Field Key to Beetle in Pines 1
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Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources • Oklahoma State University EPP-7164 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Fact Sheets are also available on our website at: http://osufacts.okstate.edu Field Key to Beetles in Pines Phil Mulder Extension Entomologist Don C. Arnold Survey Entomologist This key is designed to serve as a guide to identification of the more typical adult inner-bark and wood-boring beetles attacking Oklahoma pine trees. The key consists of two parts, one for adult insects and one for galleries made by the insects. A ruler and a 10 to 15X hand lens will be very helpful in using this key. When possible, use both adult and gallery keys. If the insect does not key out properly and proper identification is desired, place an adult in a small bottle containing 70% alcohol and mail to: Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078. Please include information as to the type and amount of damage noted, host, date, and locality. Some insects found in association with pines cannot be identified with this key. These would include larvae, flat bugs, predacious insects, and arthropods other than insects, such as mites and pseudoscorpions. Survey Methods Check your trees periodically for damage. Remove the bark and look for adult beetles and their galleries; look for “pin-holes” and large holes in the wood. Healthy, as well as damaged trees should be checked for pitch tubes and subsequent galleries. Beetle damage to pines can occur throughout the year with the heaviest damage occurring in the late summer and fall. Descriptions of Larvae Southern Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) This beetle is about 1/8-inch long. The posterior portions of the elytra are rounded as viewed from the top and side. A small notch may be seen on the front of the head with the 10X or 15X lens. The beetles have attacked pines of all sizes and can kill healthy trees. Pitch tubes may be found on the middle and lower trunk. This beetle makes “S” shaped galleries in the inner-bark of the tree. Black Turpentine Beetle (Dendroctonus terebrans) The adult is 1/4 to 1/3-inch long, dark brown or black. It is without a small notch on the front of the head; the abdomen is rounded. Pitch tubes are located on the lower trunks or stumps of pines with mechanical scars, or on trees occurring on poor drainage sites. The insect is more prevalent during dry periods. The pitch tubes are large, greater than 1/2 inch in diameter. The galleries are ovate or “D” shaped. Ips Beetles (Several spp.) Three Ips species frequently attack the crown and trunks of saplings and mature pines, which have been weakened by drougth, fire, hail, insects, or other agents. Small pitch tubes (1/4 inch or less in diameter) can be found on branches and/or on trunks. Even though each species has a preference for a portion of the tree, they may overlap. The brownish-red beetles make “H” or “Y” shaped galleries. Ips avulsus, the smallest Ips beetle, is 1/8-inch long with 4 projections on the posterior of each elytron. With the invasion of this Ips beetle into the upper portion of the tree, other Ips species may invade. Ips grandicollis is the medium-sized bark beetle, which is about 3/16-inch long and has 5 projections on the posterior of each elytron. This species commonly invades the middle and upper trunk. Ips calligraphus is about 1/4-inch in length and has 6 projections on the posterior of each elytron. The beetle characteristically attacks the lower trunk. Southern Pine Sawyer (Monochamus titillator) The main distinguishing characteristics of this species are the size, color, and length of antennae. The gray-brown adult is 3/4 to 1 1/4-inches long. The antannae are longer than the body; they can be about 2 to 3 times the length of the body. The adult female cuts funnel-shaped pits in the bark surface and oviposits in the phloem. Larvae feeding beneath the bark at these points produce brownish frass and coarse-shredded wood. Circular pencil-size holes in the wood are signs that adults have emerged. The insect causes considerable degrading of lumber by tunneling through sapwood and heartwood of dead and dying pines or green logs. Turpentine Borer (Buprestis apricans) The adult is grayish-bronze with a metallic green cast. It is approximately 1 to 1 1/4-inches long. The antennae are shorter than the length of the thorax. Pines attacked may be fire-scarred or mechanically injured. Signs of this insect are elliptical emergence holes with tightly packed frass in the galleries. Generally these elliptical holes are found less than 6 feet from ground level. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service
|Okla State Agency||
Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service
|Okla Agency Code||
|Title||Field key to beetles in pines|
Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service.
Arnold, Donald C.
|Publisher||Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service|
Pine--Diseases and pests--Oklahoma.
|Purpose||This key is designed to serve as a guide to identification of the more typical adult inner-bark and wood-boring beetles attacking Oklahoma pine trees. The key consists of two parts, one for adult insects and one for galleries made by the insects.|
|Notes||posted by Oklahoma Forestry Services|
|Series||OSU fact sheets ; EPP-7164|
|OkDocs Class#||Z2155.5 F454b 2004|
|Digital Format||PDF, Adobe Reader required|
|ODL electronic copy||Downloaded from agency website: http://www.forestry.ok.gov/Websites/forestry/Images/Field%20Key%20to%20Beetle%20in%20Pines.pdf|
|Rights and Permissions||This Oklahoma state government publication is provided for educational purposes under U.S. copyright law. Other usage requires permission of copyright holders.|